The brain, cerebellum and brainstem are removed. Only the upper cervical cord is
generally available (spinal cord is taken entirely for diseases with spinal lesions such
as multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).
The following subcortical nuclei are systematically sampled: lenticular nucleus
(including putamen and pallidum), caudate nucleus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus,
nucleus basalis of Meynert, amygdala, substantia nigra.
The following cortical areas are systematically sampled: middle frontal gyrus, superior
temporal gyrus, motor cortex, supramarginal gyrus, visual cortex.
The autopsy and sampling protocols may be adapted in a prospective way for specific